Carpet gets it color through four basic dye methods. The most common is called jet-beck, where the carpet and the dye are place in a vat, and then placed under pressure (kind of like grandma’s pressure cooker). Since the beck is under pressure it does not take as long for the dye to penetrate the fibers. Thus, the term JET beck.
Another method is Kuster dyeing. Kuster dyeing involves running the carpet along a conveyer belt under a row of jets that apply computer controlled color. Kuster methods have to be controlled carefully. If not, the color could drift across the roll and cause a problem known as sidematch shading. This makes seaming the carpet impossible without a visible color break at the seam line.
The third method is called Atmospheric or Beck dyeing. Beck dyeing is simply placing the carpet in a giant vat of hot dye and cooking it for a few hours. This type of dyeing puts the color evenly through out the carpet and is the best way to eliminate sidematch problems. Beck dye carpets cost a little more because they take longer to make.
The fourth method is solution or yarn dyeing. This is where the fiber is dyed in solution form, then made into yarn, and then made into carpet. This method is the most color fast, (fade resistant), and eliminates sidematch problems altogether. You will see solution dyed carpets most often in commercial carpet, and now in the new Triexta fiber (Smartstrand, a Mohawk trademark). This method of dying is why Mohawk puts a no fade warranty and lifetime stain warranty on their Smartstrand carpets. The newest Stainmaster carpets (Pet Protect TM) are made from solution dyed NYLON, and are available in residential styles.